Evergreen, Herbs, Shrubs
Native to the Mediterranean region, Canary Islands, and Madeira. Prized for fragrant lavender or purple flowers, often set off by colorful bracts.
Blossom spikes of some species are used for perfume, aromatic oil, soap, medicine, sachets. Aromatic gray, gray-green, or yellowish green foliage. Use as an informal hedge or edging, in herb gardens, or in borders with plants needing similar cultural conditions—sunrose (Helianthemum), catmint (Nepeta), rosemary, santolina, or verbena.
Where winters are too cold for year-round growth outdoors, lavenders are good container plants for sunny windows. When they are grown outside in marginal climates, self-sown seedlings often show up the summer after the parent plants die from winter cold. Most lavenders attract bees and butterflies.
Lavenders need well-drained soil and little or no fertilizer. They will succeed in cool coastal or mountain climates or inland valleys and deserts but succumb to root rot in areas where heat is accompanied by humidity. Fernleaf sorts (L. canariensis, L. minutolii, L. multifida) as well as L. allardii, L. ‘Goodwin Creek Grey’, and L. heterophylla are tender, but they’re more resistant to heat and humidity than English lavenders and lavandins (L. angustifolia, L. intermedia).
Give good air circulation. If mulching around lavenders, use pea gravel, decomposed granite, or sand rather than organic materials. To keep plants neat and compact, shear back by one-third to one-half (even by two-thirds) every year immediately after bloom.
If plants become woody and open in the center, remove a few of the oldest branches; take out more when new growth comes. If this doesn’t work, dig and replace.
For sachets and potpourri, cut flower spikes or strip flowers from stems just as blossoms show color; dry in a cool, shady place. Dried spikes make fragrant wreaths, swags, and wands. Dried flowers can be used to scent water or soap. To flavor ice cream, pastries, or salads, you can use the fresh flowers of L. angustifolia and L. intermedia varieties; other species contain harmful chemicals that should not be ingested.
Since lavenders have been in cultivation for centuries and some species cross easily, many varieties and hybrids have arisen. Names are often confused, so some of the variety names that follow may not agree with those you see on nursery labels.
Be aware that only cutting-grown stock is truly uniform. Several varieties originally propagated by cuttings are now grown from seed (for example, plants labeled Hidcote Strain and Munstead Strain); seedlings vary in color and growth habit.Lavandula angustifolia
This is the sweetly fragrant lavender used for perfume and sachets. Common name notwithstanding, it is native not to England but to mountains of southern Europe. It’s the hardiest, most widely planted species. In Zones 2 and 3, it is shorter=lived, lasting only 3 to 5 years. Most varieties are fairly low growing, forming mounds of foliage from 8 in. to 2 ft. high and wide. Narrow, smooth-edged, gray-green or silvery gray leaves to 2 in. long. Unbranched flower stems rise 4–12 in. above foliage, and are topped with 1–4-in.-long spikes of flowers in white, pink, lavender blue, or various shades of purple. Blooms mainly appear from early to midsummer, but some varieties repeat in late summer or fall.
The original had deep violet flowers and medium green foliage on a plant 1 1/2–2 ft. tall. The plants sold under this name today are frequently grown from seed; they may bear gray foliage and/or vary in size from the original. ‘Hidcote Blue’ (with deep blue flowers) and ‘Hidcote Superior’ (compact, uniform, to 16 in. tall and 18 in. wide) are popular selections.
Compact growth to 1 1/2–2 ft. high and wide. Dense gray foliage. Bright violet-blue blossoms in great abundance from late spring to early summer.
The original is 1 1/2 ft. tall and 2 ft. wide, with bright lavender-blue flowers and medium green foliage. Long bloomer; makes a good low hedge. Quite variable when grown from seed.
Very compact mound of medium green leaves to just 6 in. high and 12 in. wide. Bright violet-blue flowers rise 6 in. above foliage.
This variety of rue is dense and compact, with a fine gray-blue color.
Leaves are 12–16 in. long, divided into 15–19 leaflets. Fragrant, 1/2 -ft. clusters of vio...
Deciduous shrub from eastern Asia. Grows to 10–12 ft. tall and 6 ft. wide. Upright and compact w...