Like firs (Abies), spruces are pyramidal trees, with branches arranged in neat tiers. Unlike firs, however, their cones hang down, and their needles are stiffer and attached to branches by small pegs that remain behind after the needles drop. Most spruces are tall timber trees, but dwarf varieties are lovely in home gardens. Plants have shallow root systems and so need a reasonably cool location. Spruces generally grow best where summers are cool or mild; most suffer in heat and humidity. P. pungens tolerates dry conditions better than the other species.
Spruces can be grown in containers for years as living Christmas trees and moved indoors for up to a week. In coldest climates, move potted trees to a protected location for winter.
Check spruces for small, dull green aphids in winter; if they’re present, take control measures at that time to prevent defoliation in spring. Pine needle scale (look for flat, white scale insects on needles) may encourage sooty mold. In Rocky Mountain states, spruces may be bothered by spider mites and tussock moths. Cooley spruce gall adelgid is an aphidlike insect that attacks many spruce trees, especially in the Pacific Northwest and mountain areas. Its feeding causes green, conelike galls to form at ends of new growth. These galls gradually turn light purplish tan and then brown by autumn. Douglas fir is an alternate host for these pests, but it doesn’t develop galls. Contact your local Cooperative Extension Office for control measures.Picea omorika
Native to southeastern Europe. Narrow, conical, slow-growing tree to 50–60 ft. tall and just 6–10 ft. wide. Shiny, dark green needles have whitish undersides, giving a two-tone effect. Retains branches to the ground for many years. Considered by some to be the most attractive of all spruces. It is the one least likely to be seriously damaged by Cooley spruce gall adelgid. ‘Nana’ is a dwarf to 3–4 ft. tall and wide (possibly to 10 ft. tall), with short, closely spaced needles. ‘Pendula Bruns’, to 6–8 ft. tall and 2 ft. wide after 10 years, forms an elegant column of weeping, slightly twisting branches. ‘Pimoko’ forms a tight, symmetrical mound just 1 1/2 ft. high and 2 1/2 ft. wide, with blue-green needles.
Native to southeastern Europe. Narrow, conical, slow-growing tree to 50–60 ft. tall and just 6&n...
Native to southern Europe, Asia. Usually an airy, twiggy shrub but can be trained as a small tree (15&...
From Japan. Grows to 20 in. tall, with 6 in. leaflets. A 4–12-in. stalk supports a 6-in. spathe ...