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‘Valencia’ orange
‘Valencia’ orange

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Zones 8, 9, 12-28
Full Sun
Regular Water

Citrus, Sweet Orange

Evergreen, Edible fruit, Shrubs, Trees, Decorative fruit or berries

The commercial oranges of the West are typified by ‘Washington’ navel and ‘Valencia’.

Arizona Sweets is a group of varieties grown in Arizona. Many are also grown in Florida. They include ‘Diller’, which bears small to medium-size oranges with few seeds and high-quality juice in late fall (before heavy frost) on a vigorous, large, dense tree with large leaves; ‘Hamlin’, similar but not as hardy, producing medium-size fruit; ‘Marrs’, with tasty, low-acid, early-ripening fruit on a naturally semi-dwarf tree that bears young; and ‘Pineapple’, tending to bear rich-flavored, seedy fruit in alternate years.

Blood oranges are characterized by red pigmentation in flesh, juice, and (to a lesser degree) rind. Flavor is excellent, with raspberry overtones. Generally, they thrive wherever sweet oranges produce good fruit. Pigmentation varies with local microclimates and weather. ‘Moro’ bears fruit with deep red flesh and variable amounts of red on the rind from early winter to early spring (no rind pigmentation on the coast); ‘Sanguinelli’ has red-skinned fruit and flesh streaked with red from late winter to mid-spring; and ‘Tarocco’ produces fruit with red or red-suffused pulp and pink to red juice from early to midwinter (color varies from year to year), with good quality in cooler areas. ‘Tarocco’ is very vigorous and open growing, with long, willowy, vine-like branches; the dwarf tree makes an ideal espalier.

‘Campbell’ (Valencia)

This is an early, almost seedless version of ‘Valencia’, which is the juice orange of stores. Widely adapted from Florida to Texas and in California, but a poor risk in Arizona. ‘Campbell Valencia’ oranges mature in early summer and store on the tree for months, improving in sweetness. This is a vigorous tree, fuller growing than ‘Washington’, both as standard and dwarf. Expect it to reach 25–30 ft. high and wide.

‘Cara Cara’ (Navel)

First rosy-fleshed navel; bears at the same time as ‘Washington’. Rich flavor.

‘Shamouti’ (‘Palestine Jaffa’)

Originated in Israel and considered there to be the finest orange. Large, seedless, no navel. Not a commercial orange in California because it is not sufficiently superior to ‘Washington’ navel. Grown on dwarf rootstock for home gardens because of beauty in form and foliage. It is wider than tall. Larger leaves than those of navel oranges. Heavy crop of fruit in early spring. ‘Pera’ is a ‘Shamouti’ relative grown in Hawaii.


Originated from seedling of ‘Washington’ navel. Thin skinned and about navel size, but without navel. Ripens in early spring. Apparently requires less heat than other sweet oranges and develops good-quality fruit near (though not on) the coast. Nevertheless, it tolerates heat well enough to pass as one of the Arizona Sweets. Dwarf tree has ‘Washington’ navel look, with handsome dark green leaves.

‘Washington’ (Navel)

Widely adapted except in desert regions; best in warm interiors. Standard tree is 20–25-ft. globe. On dwarf stock, it grows 8–12 ft. tall. Bears early to midwinter. ‘Tabata’ is identical (or nearly so) to ‘Washington’; it is grown in Hawaii, as is the standard ‘Washington’.


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