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Native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Large, deeply lobed, sometimes spiny leaves in clumps to about 3 ft. wide. Bloom in late spring or summer, when foliage clumps send up tall spikes of hooded whitish, rose, or purple flowers beneath spiny green or purplish bracts. Lop off the prickly spikes at after flowers fade.

These tough plants have spreading roots and can become invasive. Give them plenty of room, or confine them with an 8-in.-deep barrier. In dry-summer regions, they will lose their leaves if deprived of moisture in summer, then leaf out again with winter rains; occasional soakings will keep leaves green during hot weather.

To propagate, dig and divide between midfall and early spring. Control snails, slugs. Plants are effective in shade with bamboo and large-leafed ferns but will survive in dry, sunny spots.

Acanthus mollis

Most commonly grown species. To 4–5 ft. high in bloom. Spineless leaves to 2 ft. long are deeply lobed and cut.

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