There are some 250 species of penstemon. Most are native to the West, ranging from Canada into Mexico; some grow on the highest mountains, some in the desert, and others in forest glades, in foothills, on plains. A few are widely available, but most are sold only by specialists. Some of the perennials described here have woody-based stems, while others are herbaceous. Most species have narrowish, pointed leaves; those in basal foliage clump are larger, those on flower stems are smaller. Narrowly bell-shaped, lipped flowers (usually 3/4–1 1/2 in. long) are most commonly seen in bright reds and blues, but they also come in shades from soft pink through salmon and peach to deep rose, lilac, dark purple, white, and, rarely, yellow. Blossoms of some species attract hummingbirds.
Need fast drainage. Species in particular benefit from rock garden conditions. Usually short lived (3 or 4 years). Hybrids and selections tend to be easier to grow than wild species alongside regular garden plants; wild kinds may die quickly if given too-rich soil and too much water. In dry years or with restricted water, however, plants of wild species may thrive.Penstemon cardinalis
Native to southern New Mexico and Texas. Leafy habit to 2 1/2 ft. tall and 2 ft. wide. Large, leathery, dark green foliage. Dark red flowers bloom all summer; very popular with hummingbirds. Long-lived, adaptable plant that thrives even in areas with humid summers.
Cornflower blue flowers in dense clusters to 2 in. across on 1–2-ft.-tall stems. Late spring blo...
Lavender flowers precede foliage that opens pink, matures to lime and gold, then shades to green.
Native to southern Europe. Upright plants grow to 1–5 ft. tall and 1 ft. wide, with deeply cut, ...